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Darbas anglų kalba apie modemų atsiradimą ir jų istoriją.


Modems were first introduced as a part of the SAGE air-defense system in the 1950s, connecting terminals located at various airbases, radar sites and command-and-control centers to the SAGE director centers scattered around the US and Canada. SAGE ran on dedicated communications lines, but the devices at either end were otherwise similar in concept to today's modems. IBM was the primary contractor for both the computers and the modems used in the SAGE system. A few years later a chance meeting between the CEO of American Airlines and a regional manager of IBM led to a "mini-SAGE" being developed as an automated airline ticketing system. In this case the terminals were located at ticketting offices, tied to a central computer that managed availability and scheduling. The system, known as Sabre, is the distant parent of today's SABRE system.

By the early 1960s commercial computer use had bloomed, due in no small part to the developments above, and in 1962 AT&T released the first commercial modem, the Bell 103. Using frequency-shift keying, where two tones are used to represent the 1's and 0's of digital data, the 103 had a transmission rate of 300 bit/s. Only a short time later they released the Bell 212, switching to the more reliable phase-shift keying system and increasing the data rate to 1200 bit/s. The similar Bell 201 system used both sets of signals (send and receive) on 4-wire leased lines for 2400 bit/s operation.

The next major advance in modems was the Hayes Smartmodem, introduced in 1981 by Hayes Communications. The Smartmodem was a simple 300 bit/s modem using the Bell 103 signaling standards, but attached to a small controller that let the computer send commands to it to operate the phone line.

Acoustically coupled modem

Prior to the Smartmodem, modems almost universally required a two-step process to activate a connection: first, manually dial the remote number on a standard phone handset, then plug the handset into a modem-attached acoustic coupler, a device with two rubber cups for the handset that converted between the audio signals and the electrical modem signals. With the Smartmodem, the acoustic coupler was eliminated by plugging the modem directly into a modular phone set or wall jack, and the computer was "smart" enough to bypass the phone and dial the number directly. These changes greatly simplified installation and operation of bulletin board systems (BBS).

Modems stayed at about these rates into the 1980s. A 2400 bit/s system very similar to the Bell 212 signalling was introduced in the US, and a slightly different, and incompatible, one in Europe. By the late 1980s most modems could support all of these standards, and 2400 bit/s was becoming common. A huge number of other standards were also introduced for special-purpose situations, commonly using a high-speed channel for sending, and a lower-speed channel for receiving. One typical example was used in the French Minitel system, where the user's terminals spent the majority of their time receiving information. The modem in the Minitel terminal thus operated at 1200 bit/s for reception, and 75 bit/s for sending commands back to the servers. ...

Rašto darbo duomenys
Tinklalapyje paskelbta2005-09-05
DalykasKompiuterių referatas
KategorijaInformatika >  Kompiuteriai
Apimtis3 puslapiai 
Literatūros šaltiniai0
KalbaAnglų kalba
Dydis81.79 KB
Viso autoriaus darbų1 darbas
Metai2005 m
Švietimo institucijaKauno Stepono Dariaus ir Stasio Girėno gimnazija
Failo pavadinimasMicrosoft Word Modems [speros.lt].doc




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  • 3 puslapiai 
  • Kauno Stepono Dariaus ir Stasio Girėno gimnazija / 10 Klasė/kursas
  • 2005 m
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